Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2019, Page: 1-7
Exploring the Consequences of Organizational Cynicism
Hira Toheed, Department of Management Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Jamshid Ali Turi, The Smart School and College System, Parachinar Campus, Pakistan
Muhammad Ismail Ramay, Department of Management Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Received: Nov. 15, 2018;       Accepted: Dec. 3, 2018;       Published: Mar. 14, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijes.20190301.11      View  106      Downloads  23
Abstract
In Pakistan, Advertising sector has always been in the limelight due to its efficient, communicative and well-integrated approach towards common public. Right now, advertising sector is facing a lot of challenges and organizational cynicism is one of them. This research was conducted to identify the relationship of the antecedents and consequences of cynical behavior showed up by the employees during any organizational change in the advertising sector of Pakistan. This cynical behavior may emerge due to two major reasons, one is what kind of information is perceived by the employees and what are the relational contexts towards it. In addition to this, the paper is based on the Buddha’s quote that “Change is never painful, only the resistance to change is painful”. Opinion of more than 250 employees was collected in the process of analysis. Findings show that cynicism has a significant influence towards organizational commitment and resistance towards change. Analysis shows that there is a strong requirement of eliminating cynicism out of the biggest economic activity of any country, i.e. advertising.
Keywords
Cynicism, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Change, Negative Attitude, Resistance
To cite this article
Hira Toheed, Jamshid Ali Turi, Muhammad Ismail Ramay, Exploring the Consequences of Organizational Cynicism, International Journal of European Studies. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.ijes.20190301.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Agocs, C. (1997). Institutionalized resistance to organizational change: Denial, inaction and repression. Journal of Business Ethics, 16 (9), 917-931.
[2]
Andersson, L. M., & Bateman, T. S. (1997). Cynicism in the workplace: Some causes and effects. Journal of organizational behavior, 449-469.
[3]
Aslam, U., Arfeen, M., Mohti, W., & Rahman, U. u. (2015). Organizational cynicism and its impact on privatization (evidence from federal government agency of Pakistan). Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 9 (4), 401-425.
[4]
Aslam, U., Ilyas, M., Imran, M. K., & Rahman, U. (2016). Detrimental effects of cynicism on organizational change: an interactive model of organizational cynicism (a study of employees in public sector organizations). Journal of Organizational Change Management, 29 (4), 580-598.
[5]
Barrett, A. K. (2015). Change is inevitable but compliance is optional: coworker social influence and behavioral work-arounds in the EHR implementation of healthcare organizations.
[6]
Berg, M. T., Stewart, E. A., Intravia, J., Warren, P. Y., & Simons, R. L. (2016). Cynical streets: neighborhood social processes and perceptions of criminal injustice. Criminology, 54 (3), 520-547.
[7]
Bernerth, J. B., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., & Walker, H. J. (2007). Justice, cynicism, and commitment: A study of important organizational change variables. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43 (3), 303-326.
[8]
Berson, M. J., Berson, I. R., Loi, C. X. A., Baldwin, J. A., McDermott, R. J., & Vandeweerd, C. (2014). Research on technology in the social studies: Professional development, design, and delivery. The Journal of Social Studies Research, 38 (3), 115-116.
[9]
Biernacki, P., & Waldorf, D. (1981). Snowball sampling: Problems and techniques of chain referral sampling. Sociological Methods & Research, 10 (2), 141-163.
[10]
Cozby, P. (1997). Methods in Behavioral Research, Mountain View CA: Mayfield. Google Scholar.
[11]
Dabholkar, P. A. (2015). How to improve perceived service quality by increasing customer participation. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 1990 academy of marketing science (AMS) annual conference.
[12]
Dean Jr, J. W., Brandes, P., & Dharwadkar, R. (1998). Organizational cynicism. Academy of Management review, 23 (2), 341-352.
[13]
DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: Managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resource Management (1986-1998), 37 (3-4), 295.
[14]
Eleswed, M., & Mohammed, F. (2014). Predicting Organizational Commitment via Job Satisfaction, Gender, Age, Experience, and Position: An empirical Investigation in a Private Financial Institution in Bahrain. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5 (9).
[15]
Field, J. (2000). Lifelong learning and the new educational order: ERIC.
[16]
Gul, M., Obaid, Z., & Ali, S. (2017). Liberalization of Media in Pakistan: A Challenge to Democracy. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 25 (1), 37-54.
[17]
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5): Prentice hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
[18]
Houston, S. (2005). Philosophy, theory and method in social work: Challenging empiricism’s claim on evidence-based practice. Journal of Social Work, 5 (1), 7-20.
[19]
Johnson, J. L., & O'Leary‐Kelly, A. M. (2003). The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: Not all social exchange violations are created equal. Journal of organizational behavior, 24 (5), 627-647.
[20]
Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (2015). The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance organization: Harvard Business Review Press.
[21]
Khan, M. A. (2014). Organizational Cynicism and Employee Turnover Intention: Evidence from Banking Sector in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, 8 (1).
[22]
Khan, W. Z., Aalsalem, M. Y., Khan, M. K., & Arshad, Q. (2017). When social objects collaborate: Concepts, processing elements, attacks and challenges. Computers & Electrical Engineering, 58, 397-411.
[23]
Kim, T.-Y., Bateman, T. S., Gilbreath, B., & Andersson, L. M. (2009). Top management credibility and employee cynicism: A comprehensive model. Human Relations, 62 (10), 1435-1458.
[24]
Kour, R., & Sudan, A. S. (2018). Role of Women Leaders In Influencing Satisfaction Level of Employees: A Study of J& K Insurance Sector. Amity Global Business Review, 13 (1).
[25]
Matell, M. S., & Jacoby, J. (1971). Is there an optimal number of alternatives for Likert scale items? Study I: Reliability and validity. Educational and psychological measurement, 31 (3), 657-674.
[26]
Miller, D. B., & O'Callaghan, J. P. (1994). Environment-, drug-and stress-induced alterations in body temperature affect the neurotoxicity of substituted amphetamines in the C57BL/6J mouse. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 270 (2), 752-760.
[27]
Miller, K. I., & Monge, P. R. (1985). Social information and employee anxiety about organizational change. Human Communication Research, 11 (3), 365-386.
[28]
Mirvis, P. H., & Kanter, D. L. (1991). Beyond demography: A psychographic profile of the workforce. Human Resource Management, 30 (1), 45-68.
[29]
Nesbit, G. M., Clark, W. M., O'neill, O. R., & Barnwell, S. L. (1996). Intracranial intraarterial thrombolysis facilitated by microcatheter navigation through an occluded cervical internal carotid artery. Journal of neurosurgery, 84 (3), 387-392.
[30]
Nunnally, N. R., Shields, F. D., & Hynson, J. (1987). Environmental considerations for levees and floodwalls. Environmental Management, 11 (2), 183-191.
[31]
Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 15 (1), 73-101.
[32]
Peter, B., & Chima, O. B. (2018). Organisational Cynicism and Employees’ Intention to Quit. International Journal of Management Science, 5 (1), 6-9.
[33]
Petrou, P., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2018). Crafting the change: The role of employee job crafting behaviors for successful organizational change. Journal of Management, 44 (5), 1766-1792.
[34]
Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of applied psychology, 59 (5), 603.
[35]
Qian, J., Wang, J., & Li, S. (2008). World’s oil shale available retorting technologies and the forecast of shale oil production. Paper presented at the The Eighteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference.
[36]
Qian, Y. (2013). Beyond the BOHICA Syndrome: Social Construction of Employee Cynicism toward Organizational Change. Florida Communication Journal, 41 (2).
[37]
Riaz, A., & Ramay, M. (2010). Antecedents of job satisfaction: A study of telecom sector. Perspectives of Innovation in Economics and Business (PIEB), 4 (1), 66-73.
[38]
Ross, C., Carnall, M., Hudson-Smith, A., Warwick, C., Terras, M., & Gray, S. (2013). Enhancing museum narratives: tales of things and UCL’s grant museum. The Mobile Story Narrative Practices with Locative Technologies. Abingdon: Routledge, 276-289.
[39]
Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative science quarterly, 224-253.
[40]
Sankowska, A. (2016). The impact of the core competencies on enterprise innovativeness. International Journal of Contemporary Management, 11 (1), 121-129.
[41]
Scott, K. A., & Zweig, D. (2016). Understanding and mitigating cynicism in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31 (2), 552-569.
[42]
Stanley, W. C., Recchia, F. A., & Lopaschuk, G. D. (2005). Myocardial substrate metabolism in the normal and failing heart. Physiological reviews, 85 (3), 1093-1129.
[43]
Twale, D. J. (2017). Understanding and Preventing Faculty-on-Faculty Bullying: A Psycho-Social-Organizational Approach: Routledge.
[44]
Walker, M. G., Mateo, M., Olszewski, E. W., Gnedin, O. Y., Wang, X., Sen, B., & Woodroofe, M. (2007). Velocity dispersion profiles of seven dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 667 (1), L53.
[45]
Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Austin, J. T. (2004). Cynicism about organizational change: An attribution process perspective. Psychological reports, 94 (3_suppl), 1421-1434.
Browse journals by subject