International Journal of European Studies

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Conflict and Social Inequalities in Yemen: An Increase in Inequality of Access to Primary Education

Received: 27 March 2023    Accepted: 25 April 2023    Published: 10 May 2023
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Abstract

Children are the actors of the economic and social scene of tomorrow. They are, on the other hand, the section most exposed to danger in conflict environments. This article is intended to study the consequences of the armed conflict on social equality and in particular its impact on the right of access to education for Yemeni children. United Nations reports point to a high dropout rate among Yemeni children (UNISCO, 2021). It is thus a question of knowing the causes and demonstrating the direct impacts of the social conflict on the schooling of children in Yemeni society. To achieve this objective, we used a qualitative method, which consists of conducting interviews with 30 Yemeni families affected by the civil war. These families constitute our public, which includes 57 children between the age of (7-13 years). It is the legal age that corresponds to primary education. The results obtained from our survey showed a very fragile situation of childhood in Yemen. They also confirmed the figures and data quoted in the reports of the various UN organizations. So it is important, in order to protect the of children to access education, to call for an end to this conflict and rehabilitate the infrastructure of the education system; building, chairs, teachers, programs and textbooks, etc.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijes.20230701.11
Published in International Journal of European Studies (Volume 7, Issue 1, June 2023)
Page(s) 1-7
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Yemen Society, Social Conflict, Social Inequalities, Yemen Child, Unequal Access to Education, Child Labor, Poverty

References
[1] Alkamel, M and Al Olofi, E (2020): "education and social integration in Yemeni society", in ROA, volume 2, number 3, Biskara.
[2] Bhir, Alain and Pferfferkorn, Roland (2008): The system of inequalities, Edition La Découverte, Paris.
[3] Durkheim E (1991): From the division of social work, PUF, Paris. 2nd edition.
[4] Diane L. Putnick, Marc H. Bornstein (2016): "Is child labor a barrier to school enrollment in low- and middle-income" in International Journal of Educational Development, 2016, n 41, pp 12-120.
[5] François Dubet (2011): "Regimes of inequality and social injustices", SociologieS [Online], Debates, online October 18, 201 1,. URL: https://journals.openedition.org/sociologies/3643. Consulted February 24, 2023.
[6] HUMANAPPEAL (2021): "school rehabilitation in Yemen" October.URL: https://humanappeal.be/faire-un-don/projets/rehabilitations/rehabilitation-ecole-yemen. Consulted on January 2023.
[7] ILO, International Labor Office (2007): "Modern policy and legal responses to child labor", Geneva. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/africa/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_228972.pdf. Consulted on 2 February 2023.
[8] Moheyddeen, K (2016): "Education in Yemen Struggles after More than a Year of Conflict, in Voices and views; MENA, world bank group. URL: https://blogs.worldbank.org/arabvoices/education-yemen-struggles-conflict. Consulted on January 9, 2023.
[9] UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund (2022): "country program document, Yemen". https://www.unicef.org/executiveboard/documents/Yemen-draft-country-programme-document-srs-2022. Consulted on December, 2022.
[10] Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2022): "Humanitarian Needs Overview Yemen", New York.https://www.unocha.org/sites/unocha/files/Global%20Humanitarian%20Overview%202022.pdf. consulted on march 18, 2023.
[11] OXFAM (2020): "crisis in Yemen". https://www.oxfam.org/fr/decouvrir/urgences/crise-au-yemen. Consulted on march 11, 2023.
[12] UNDP (2019): "prolonged conflict would make Yemen the poorest country in the world" October.https://www.undp.org/press-releases/prolonged-conflict-would-make-yemen-poorest-country-world-undp-study-says. Consulted on June 5, 2022.
[13] UNESCO, Institute of Statistics (2005): "Children out-of-school: Measurement of exclusion from primary education", Montreal, 2005, p. 13. https://catalog.ihsn.org/citations/2314. Consulted on march 3, 2021.
[14] UNESCO, EFA monitoring report (2011): "The hidden crisis: armed conflicts and education", 2011.https://www.unesco.org/gem-report/en/hidden-crisis-armed-conflict-and-education. Consulted on January 2023.
[15] UNICEF, Emergency Programs (2022): "the war in Yemen". https://www.unicef.org/yemen/topics/yemen?items_per_page=50&page=1. Consulted on march 10, 2023.
[16] United Nations Children's Fund (2021): "education disrupted: impact of conflict on children's education in Yemen", UNICEF Yemen. https://yemen.un.org/sites/default/files/2022-01/UNCT%20Yemen%20-%20Common%20Country%20Analysis%20-%2015-November%202021.pdf. Consulted on February 2023.
[17] UNICEF, summary (2014): "Yemen country report on out-off-school children". https://www.unicef.org/mena/media/6686/file/Yemen%20Country%20Report%20on%20OOSC%20Summary_EN.pdf%20.pdf. Consulted on march 10, 2023.
[18] World Bank (2012): "Facing the hard facts in Yemen", https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/09/26/yemen-talking-points. Consulted on March 6, 2023.
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    Fares Al Ameri. (2023). Conflict and Social Inequalities in Yemen: An Increase in Inequality of Access to Primary Education. International Journal of European Studies, 7(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijes.20230701.11

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    ACS Style

    Fares Al Ameri. Conflict and Social Inequalities in Yemen: An Increase in Inequality of Access to Primary Education. Int. J. Eur. Stud. 2023, 7(1), 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.ijes.20230701.11

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    AMA Style

    Fares Al Ameri. Conflict and Social Inequalities in Yemen: An Increase in Inequality of Access to Primary Education. Int J Eur Stud. 2023;7(1):1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.ijes.20230701.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijes.20230701.11,
      author = {Fares Al Ameri},
      title = {Conflict and Social Inequalities in Yemen: An Increase in Inequality of Access to Primary Education},
      journal = {International Journal of European Studies},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-7},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijes.20230701.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijes.20230701.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijes.20230701.11},
      abstract = {Children are the actors of the economic and social scene of tomorrow. They are, on the other hand, the section most exposed to danger in conflict environments. This article is intended to study the consequences of the armed conflict on social equality and in particular its impact on the right of access to education for Yemeni children. United Nations reports point to a high dropout rate among Yemeni children (UNISCO, 2021). It is thus a question of knowing the causes and demonstrating the direct impacts of the social conflict on the schooling of children in Yemeni society. To achieve this objective, we used a qualitative method, which consists of conducting interviews with 30 Yemeni families affected by the civil war. These families constitute our public, which includes 57 children between the age of (7-13 years). It is the legal age that corresponds to primary education. The results obtained from our survey showed a very fragile situation of childhood in Yemen. They also confirmed the figures and data quoted in the reports of the various UN organizations. So it is important, in order to protect the of children to access education, to call for an end to this conflict and rehabilitate the infrastructure of the education system; building, chairs, teachers, programs and textbooks, etc.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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    T1  - Conflict and Social Inequalities in Yemen: An Increase in Inequality of Access to Primary Education
    AU  - Fares Al Ameri
    Y1  - 2023/05/10
    PY  - 2023
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    T2  - International Journal of European Studies
    JF  - International Journal of European Studies
    JO  - International Journal of European Studies
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    PB  - Science Publishing Group
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    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijes.20230701.11
    AB  - Children are the actors of the economic and social scene of tomorrow. They are, on the other hand, the section most exposed to danger in conflict environments. This article is intended to study the consequences of the armed conflict on social equality and in particular its impact on the right of access to education for Yemeni children. United Nations reports point to a high dropout rate among Yemeni children (UNISCO, 2021). It is thus a question of knowing the causes and demonstrating the direct impacts of the social conflict on the schooling of children in Yemeni society. To achieve this objective, we used a qualitative method, which consists of conducting interviews with 30 Yemeni families affected by the civil war. These families constitute our public, which includes 57 children between the age of (7-13 years). It is the legal age that corresponds to primary education. The results obtained from our survey showed a very fragile situation of childhood in Yemen. They also confirmed the figures and data quoted in the reports of the various UN organizations. So it is important, in order to protect the of children to access education, to call for an end to this conflict and rehabilitate the infrastructure of the education system; building, chairs, teachers, programs and textbooks, etc.
    VL  - 7
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Author Information
  • French Department, Faculty of Arts, University of Sana'a, Sana'a, Yemen

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