International Journal of European Studies

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Factors Affecting Turkish-Greek Geopolitical Competition in the Eastern Mediterranean

Received: 7 July 2023    Accepted: 27 July 2023    Published: 6 September 2023
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Abstract

Eastern Mediterranean is a region around the Mediterranean Sea, located between the Middle East and the strategic straits of Turkey and the Suez Canal. It has been the focus of geopolitical competition between Turkey and Greece, especially in the early 19th century. The dispute between the Greeks and the Ottoman Caliphate over independence culminated in 1829 is persisting until now. Using data from the Internet and written sources, this descriptive-analytical study aims to identify the possible causes of the geopolitical rivalries between Turkey and Greece in the Eastern Mediterranean. First, we identified the sources and extracted the content, and finally processed data. The conflict between the two countries dates back to the Ottoman Caliphate. In 1821, the Greeks revolted against the Ottomans and became independent in 1829. The second confrontation between the two countries took place after the First World War and the occupation of Turkey by Greece. The Greeks sought to annex Western Anatolia to Greece because, according to the Treaty of Sèvres, in addition to Western Thrace, Greece gained Eastern Thrace, which is located about forty kilometers from Istanbul. After the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne and the departure of the Greeks, the Republic of Turkey declared independence in 1924. After the Second World War, the rivalry between the two countries entered a new phase. Competition over territorial sea boundaries, ownership over Cyprus and Kastelorizo islands, the exploitation of energy resources, the issue of Western Thrace, Greece's support for the Turkish opposition, the security of the official borders between the two countries, and the crossing of refugees are among these disputes. Thus, historical issues and competition over territorial, border, maritime, energy, and ethnic issues have caused a permanent conflict between the two countries. In recent years, despite the diplomatic activities between the two countries, most of the disputes have remained unresolved.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijes.20230702.11
Published in International Journal of European Studies (Volume 7, Issue 2, December 2023)
Page(s) 19-34
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Turkey, Greece, Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean, Geopolitical Competitions

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    Hasan Karimi. (2023). Factors Affecting Turkish-Greek Geopolitical Competition in the Eastern Mediterranean. International Journal of European Studies, 7(2), 19-34. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijes.20230702.11

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    Hasan Karimi. Factors Affecting Turkish-Greek Geopolitical Competition in the Eastern Mediterranean. Int. J. Eur. Stud. 2023, 7(2), 19-34. doi: 10.11648/j.ijes.20230702.11

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    AMA Style

    Hasan Karimi. Factors Affecting Turkish-Greek Geopolitical Competition in the Eastern Mediterranean. Int J Eur Stud. 2023;7(2):19-34. doi: 10.11648/j.ijes.20230702.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijes.20230702.11,
      author = {Hasan Karimi},
      title = {Factors Affecting Turkish-Greek Geopolitical Competition in the Eastern Mediterranean},
      journal = {International Journal of European Studies},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {19-34},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijes.20230702.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijes.20230702.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijes.20230702.11},
      abstract = {Eastern Mediterranean is a region around the Mediterranean Sea, located between the Middle East and the strategic straits of Turkey and the Suez Canal. It has been the focus of geopolitical competition between Turkey and Greece, especially in the early 19th century. The dispute between the Greeks and the Ottoman Caliphate over independence culminated in 1829 is persisting until now. Using data from the Internet and written sources, this descriptive-analytical study aims to identify the possible causes of the geopolitical rivalries between Turkey and Greece in the Eastern Mediterranean. First, we identified the sources and extracted the content, and finally processed data. The conflict between the two countries dates back to the Ottoman Caliphate. In 1821, the Greeks revolted against the Ottomans and became independent in 1829. The second confrontation between the two countries took place after the First World War and the occupation of Turkey by Greece. The Greeks sought to annex Western Anatolia to Greece because, according to the Treaty of Sèvres, in addition to Western Thrace, Greece gained Eastern Thrace, which is located about forty kilometers from Istanbul. After the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne and the departure of the Greeks, the Republic of Turkey declared independence in 1924. After the Second World War, the rivalry between the two countries entered a new phase. Competition over territorial sea boundaries, ownership over Cyprus and Kastelorizo islands, the exploitation of energy resources, the issue of Western Thrace, Greece's support for the Turkish opposition, the security of the official borders between the two countries, and the crossing of refugees are among these disputes. Thus, historical issues and competition over territorial, border, maritime, energy, and ethnic issues have caused a permanent conflict between the two countries. In recent years, despite the diplomatic activities between the two countries, most of the disputes have remained unresolved.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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    AB  - Eastern Mediterranean is a region around the Mediterranean Sea, located between the Middle East and the strategic straits of Turkey and the Suez Canal. It has been the focus of geopolitical competition between Turkey and Greece, especially in the early 19th century. The dispute between the Greeks and the Ottoman Caliphate over independence culminated in 1829 is persisting until now. Using data from the Internet and written sources, this descriptive-analytical study aims to identify the possible causes of the geopolitical rivalries between Turkey and Greece in the Eastern Mediterranean. First, we identified the sources and extracted the content, and finally processed data. The conflict between the two countries dates back to the Ottoman Caliphate. In 1821, the Greeks revolted against the Ottomans and became independent in 1829. The second confrontation between the two countries took place after the First World War and the occupation of Turkey by Greece. The Greeks sought to annex Western Anatolia to Greece because, according to the Treaty of Sèvres, in addition to Western Thrace, Greece gained Eastern Thrace, which is located about forty kilometers from Istanbul. After the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne and the departure of the Greeks, the Republic of Turkey declared independence in 1924. After the Second World War, the rivalry between the two countries entered a new phase. Competition over territorial sea boundaries, ownership over Cyprus and Kastelorizo islands, the exploitation of energy resources, the issue of Western Thrace, Greece's support for the Turkish opposition, the security of the official borders between the two countries, and the crossing of refugees are among these disputes. Thus, historical issues and competition over territorial, border, maritime, energy, and ethnic issues have caused a permanent conflict between the two countries. In recent years, despite the diplomatic activities between the two countries, most of the disputes have remained unresolved.
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Author Information
  • Department of Political Geography, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

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